June 21, 2019

Breaking news

Dec. 5, 2014

Breaking news

To read the presentation (in French), click on the French flag.

Dec. 2, 2014

Breaking news

Internet requires regulation. It does not works solely because of the moral sense of the users or through vigilance of companies that develop on it.

The regulator of the virtual space can be imagined, or a regulator of the various possible activities that develop there, regulators then deploying their powers as when the activity takes place on the Internet. Thus, it is the case of advertising.

In the UK, the Advertising Standard Authority (ASA) monitors the advertising business, also on the Internet.

Its decision of 26 November 2014 is remarkable for several reasons. It punishes two non-professionals, namely two users Youtube tool. But in communication, non-market entrepreneurs sometimes have more weight than businesses. But on the Internet, users can sponsor their free activity, which is to monetize. In this case, the two had played on their Youtube channel short films that were advertisements.

The complaint made against them is that Youtube is not a support on which those who put content make it to commercial purposes. And other users could not understand they watched the advertisement and not a distraction film or information.

The Regulator imposes a sanction against Internet users not because they did a promotional contract with the company, in this case Cadbury wich  wants to promote Oreo cookies. By this contract, the entreprisee via the famous Internet users can reach consumers, which is permissible. They are punished because they have deceived the confidence of the other Internet users who can't imagine being the target of an advertisement. The fact that it is people with many fans on youtube counted in the severity of the Regulator. Indeed, they have more than 2 million subscribers. More than 1.3 million have seen the offending video. Only 243 people have not loved it.

Thus, in a virtual world always close to self-regulation, the notion of trust made to the information transmitters is the central concept of the system served by the Regulator power to impose sanctions,The author of the message is a professional or not is irrelevant. What matters is the importance that others give the message he sends.

June 27, 2014

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Complete reference : DRUMMOND, France, Répression des abus de marché v. non bis in idem. Perspectives d'évolution, in Mélanges en l'honneur du professeur Nicole Decoopman, coll. "CEPRISCA, PUF, Paris, 2014, p.185-196. 

This article is written in French.

Feb. 5, 2014

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Updated: Sept. 19, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 18, 2012)

Sectorial Analysis

Translated summaries

The translated summaries are done by the Editors and not by the Authors.


The Autorité de régulation des communications électroniques et des postes (ARCEP — French telecommunications and postal regulator) issued an injunction on November 4, 2010, ordering Numéricâble to sign a contract with France Telecom according to the latter’s new framework for accessing its telecommunications infrastructure for the installation of fiber optics. Failure to have complied within the imparted timeframe caused Numéricâble to be fined 5 million Euros by the ARCEP on December 20, 2011.


L’Autorité de régulation des communications électroniques et de la poste (ARCEP) avait, par une décision du 4 novembre 2010, fait injonction à Numéricâble de contracter avec France Telecom selon la nouvelle offre de celui-ci pour l’accès à l’infrastructure de génie civil pour la fibre optique. Faute de l’avoir fait dans les délais, Numéricâble est condamné par une décision de l’ARCEP du 20 décembre 2011 à une amende de 5 millions d’euros.


La Autorité de régulation des Communications électroniques et des postes (ARCEP – el regulador francés de telecomunicaciones y servicios postales) emitió una mandamiento el 4 de noviembre del 2010, ordenando Numéricâble que firmara el contrato con France Telecom de acuerdo con el nuevo marco desarrollado por el último para acceder a la infraestructura de telecomunicaciones para la instalación de fibras ópticas. La inhabilidad de cumplir con este mandamiento en el tiempo definido resultó en una multa de 5 millones de Euros para Numéricâble de parte de la ARCEP el 20 de diciembre del 2011.


Il 4 novembre 2010, la Autorité de régulation des communications électroniques et des postes (ARCEP — l’Autorità francese di regolazione in materia di telecomunicazione e servizi postali) ha emesso un’ingiunzione, ordinando a Numéricâble di sottoscrivere un contratto con France Telecom secondo l’offerta di quest’ultima per l’accesso alle infrastrutture per l’installazione della fibra ottica. Il 20 dicembre 2011, a ragione del mancato rispetto di tale ordine, Numéricâble è stata multata per 5 milioni di euro dall’ARCEP.


الّسُّلطة التنظيمية للاتصالات الإلكترونية و الخِدمة البريدية(*) في قرار 4 نوفمبر 2010, دعت علا شركة نُمريك كابل(مشغل فِرنسٍي خاص) بالاتصال بالمؤسسة الفرنسية للاتصالات(فرانس تيلكوم)* وفق الطَّرح الجديد للوصول الا الهياكل الاساسية للهندسة المدنية للألياف البصرية. هذه لم تقوم بنفذ هذا القرار في الوقت المُحدَّد لذا حكمت علا نمريك كابل في قرار 20 ديسمبر 2011 بِدفع غرامة قدرها خمسة مليون يُورو. 

*(ARCEP) السلطة التنظيمية الاتصالات الالكترونية والخدمة البريدية:
*Numéricâble : نمريك كابل
*France Telecom : فرانس تيلكوم


Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: May 29, 2012 (Initial publication: May 15, 2012)

Breaking news

The Autorité de régulation des communications électroniques et des postes (ARCEP - French regulator of Telecommunications and Posts) granted a licence for a new entrant, Free, what was widely challenged. This allocation was made in exchange f a number of commitments of recipient, especially towards the virtual mobile networks operators (MVNO). Indeed, FREE must allow them to use its facilities and its authorisation, the satisfaction of the commitment which has the effect of fostering competition in the mobile phone market. However, some virtual mobile networks operators (MVNO) complained that Free would not respect its commitments in that the offer of host that FREE have made in exchange, of a higher price of retail price, which is contrary to the principle of opening up competition. The regulator opens proceedings against FREE.

Updated: May 14, 2012 (Initial publication: May 8, 2012)

Breaking news

Economic regulation systems only work if regulators are independent, which implies in a minimal way that they are not corrupt. Few countries meet this basic requirement. Côte d'Ivoire has a telecommunications Agency, which is a State Corporation. By order of March 21, 2012, the Government creates the telecommunications regulatory authority. On May 4, 2012, the Board of Directors of the Agency of telecommunications convened to an extraordinary session and put an end to the mandate of its Director General, because of "serious shortcomings observed in the performance of his duties". He was immediately replaced by a telecommunication engineer, previously technical adviser to the Ministry. He was assigned the mission of preparing the transition of the system to an effectively independent, autonomous and impartial regulator.

Updated: Jan. 18, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 18, 2012)


Updated: Jan. 9, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 9, 2012)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Réguler n'est pas juger, réflexion sur la nature du pouvoir de sanction des autorités de régulation économique

Updated: Jan. 4, 2012 (Initial publication: July 1, 2011)


Updated: Jan. 4, 2012 (Initial publication: May 28, 2011)

Releases : I. Isolated Articles

Translated Summaries


Two and a half years after having been established by the LME, the French Competition Authority has uncontestably acquired its “place in the sun” amongst the competition authorities of other countries, as demonstrated by multiple indicators.



Articolo: L’Autorità garante della concorrenza tra “regolazione” e politica in materia di concorrenza

Due anni e mezzo dopo l’instaurazione da parte del LME, l’Autorità francese garante della libera concorrenza ha trovato il suo posto tra le diverse autorità degli altri paesi, così come è stato dimostrato da diversi indicatori.


Artículo: La Autoridad de la competencia, entre “regulación” y política competitiva.


Después de dos años y medio de haber sido establecido por el LME, la Autoridad francesa de la competencia ha incontestablemente adquirido su “lugar bajo el sol” entre las autoridades de la competencia de otros países, como demostrado por varios indicadores.


Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Dec. 21, 2011 (Initial publication: Nov. 17, 2011)


Updated: Dec. 8, 2011 (Initial publication: Sept. 22, 2011)

Releases : Neutrality in Systems of Economic Regulation

Updated: Dec. 8, 2011 (Initial publication: June 28, 2011)

Sectorial Analysis


In February 2011, the "Autorité de régulation des jeux en ligne" (ARJEL – French Online Gambling Regulatory Authority) has asked Pokerstars to shut down its Home Games, which the online gambling site has agreed to do. After that,the regulator has written to all operators to remind them that any modification of their platforms must be submitted to it for prior approval. This appoval has been given on may, 12, 2011. The Home Game is reserved to players, which account member has been validated by Pokerstar.



Relazione tematica (Scommesse): L’autorità francese di regolazione dei giochi on line (ARJEL) ha omologato il The Home Games’ Pokerstars, dopo aver annullato

Durante il mese di febbraio 2011, la "Autorité de régulation des jeux en ligne" (ARJEL – l’Autorità francese di regolazione delle scommesse online) ha richiesto alla società Pokerstars di interrompere il suo Home Games e la società si è conformata a tale richiesta. Successivamente, l’Autorità di regolazione ha scritto a tutti gli operatori ricordando che ogni modificazione della loro piattaforma dovrà essere sottoposta alla sua autorizzazione. Il 12 maggio 2011, è stata concessa questa autorizzazione. The Home Game è dunque riservato a degli utenti, il cui account è stato controllato e confermato da Pokerstars.

Other Translations forthcoming.

Dec. 6, 2011

Thesaurus : 03. French Council of State

2011, 19 oct., French Data Network, Apple Inc., ITunes Sarl.

Updated: Sept. 14, 2011 (Initial publication: June 28, 2011)


Feb. 5, 1999

Thesaurus : 02. French Court of Cassation