Oct. 5, 2016

Events : JR

Jan. 10, 2015

Sectorial Analysis

As soon as Regulation assumes independence of the operator who manages the essential infrastructure, ex ante conditions of such independence must be met.
 
Europe doesn't require legal autonomy of the essential infrastructure manager, probably because such autonomy, it would be both too ask the Policy, which may want more integrated organizations as soon as public transportation is a mix of public policies and that to public funds are used. But it would also be too little to ask the Policy because no matter the legal autonomy, the key is the real independence of the manager, that is under the control of the Regulator.
 
The Loi portant réforme ferroviaire (Railway Reform Act) of August 4, 2014 has made the integration of the company that manages the rail network, which the new name is SNCF Réseau (SNCF Network) in a public group, which also includes the SNCF, public transportation operator, in competition with new entrants in a newly opened sector to competition.
The Competition Authority in its opinion of 4 October 2013 had expressed reluctance towards the bill, to the influence that such corporate organization offers to the public operator, to the detriment of its competitors and the opening of the railway sector to competition.
The critical tone increases with the Opinion of 6 January 2015 relatif à des projets de décrets pris pour l'application de la loi portant réforme ferroviaire (on draft orders made for the purposes of Railwayl Reform Law).
The Competition Authority issues its opinion as a real essay on what should be the Regulation of the railway sector through the "governance" of the network manager. Indeed, the first part of the opinion relates to "the independent management of railway infrastructure" while the second focuses on the integration of railway network in the public group built par the law. The third part of this Opinion draws conclusions to measure whether we can consider that the Autorité de Régulation des Activités Ferroviaires (French Regulatory Authority of Railways Activities) shall have the capacity to ensure this independence by governance or not.
 
This review, in its construction itself, demonstrates the dialectic between Regulation and Governance (I), which is an observation and stresses the role of the regulator in the effectiveness of governance (II), which is more a question .

Dec. 4, 2014

Breaking news

When one likes the "Financial law," one is delighted to open the second edition of the Droit financier (Financial Law), Frenche book written by Anne-Dominique Merville and publishes at Gualino - Lextenso édition (392 p.).

Indeed, the reader learns the most recent technical rules. If it is difficult to know "Financial law" this is because it doesn't really constitute a "branch of the law." It seems an accumulation of laws, rules, decisions  and soft law adopted to serve the financial market.

Significantly way, in the book construction, there is no place especially for the "financial Regulation" while itsTitle II is about " Les régulateurs des marchés financiers" (The financial market regulators). This suggests that the financial regulatory system is primarily due to the regulatory body. This is maybe true.
Reading developments, it is observed that the European Central Bank is listed among "The financial market regulators".

For my part, for several years I do think that a central bank is a regulator. But as it is currently a supervisor and that there is a fundamental distinction between regulation and supervision. It's why it is necessary to demonstrate the transition from one to the other or intimacy between them, to affirm so easily that a central bank, monetary authority, is a financial regulator.

Yet the author assume acquired, showing that the qualification is already in the mind. The development will come after. It will impose yet because this change of qualification has important consequences. It involves jurisdictionalization of Central Banks that we still do not know and have not conceived.

Updated: April 13, 2012 (Initial publication: April 13, 2012)

Releases : Neutrality in Systems of Economic Regulation

Translated Summaries

The translated summaries are done by the Editors and not by the Authors.

ENGLISH

Prudential regulation applied to banks is caught swinging back and forth between two objectives.

FRENCH

La réglementation prudentielle appliquée aux banques oscille constamment d’un objectif à l’autre.


Updated: Jan. 31, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 13, 2012)

Contributions

Updated: Jan. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 13, 2012)

Bibliographic Reports : Books

Translated summaries

 

The translated summaries are done by the Editors and not by the Authors



ENGLISH

The purpose of this collective work is to understand the causes of the financial crisis. It has a strong international dimension and draws in both legal and economic science. Although composed of independent contributions from each other, it relies on a general demonstration, summary of which will largely be the focus of this first bibliographic report, the importance of justifying the work that results in three successive bibliographic reports. Furthermore, the book focuses on the specific issue of governance in international finance, which runs through regulatory issues, but one cannot be reduced to the other and vice versa.

Therefore in all three bibliographic records, abstracts will be more or less developed on the contributions, depending on whether they directly concerned by regulation, in which case they will be preferred or more remote areas, in which case they will shortly exposed.

The first bibliographic record aims to present, on the one hand, the general problem of the book, and also to highlight two contributions of historical (1920-1930/2001-2007).



FRENCH

Fiche Bibliographique (Livre) : La globalisation de l’intégration financière. Perspective de trente ans, de la réforme à la crise)


Cet ouvrage collectif a pour objet de comprendre les causes de la crise financière. Il présente une dimension fortement internationale et puise à la fois dans la science juridique et économique. Bien que constitué de contributions autonomes les unes des autres, il s’appuie sur une démonstration générale, dont le résumé sera en grande partie l’objet de cette première fiche bibliographique, l’importance de l’ouvrage justifiant qu’il donne lieu à a trois fiches bibliographiques successives. En outre, l’ouvrage porte sur la question précise de la gouvernance dans la finance internationale, ce qui traverse les questions de régulation mais l’un ne se réduit à l’autre et vice et versa.

C’est pourquoi dans chacune des trois fiches bibliographiques, des résumés seront plus au moins développés concernant des contributions, suivant que celles-ci abordent directement des thèmes de régulation, auquel cas elles seront privilégiées, ou des thèmes plus éloignés, auquel cas elles ne seront qu’évoquées.

Cette première fiche bibliographique a pour objet de présenter d’une part la problématique générale de l’ouvrage et d’autre part de mettre en valeur deux contributions, de nature historique (1920-1930/2001-2007).



SPANISH

Informe Bibliográfico (Libro): La Integración Global Financiera, perspectivas desde 30 años. De la reforma hasta la crisis.

El objetivo de este trabajo colectivo es de entender las causas de la crisis financiera. Contiene una gran dimensión internacional y se apoya tanto en las ciencias legales como en las económicas. Aunque es una colección de contribuciones independientes el uno del otro, todos tienen en común una dimensión general, lo cual será detallado en el primer informe bibliográfico, la importancia de justificar el trabajo que resulta en tres informes bibliográficos sucesivos. El libro se centra en el tema específico de la gobernabilidad en la finanza internacional, la cual se relaciona a la regulación, pero uno no se reduce al otro y viceversa.


Por lo tanto, en cada uno de los tres informes bibliográficos, abstractos serán desarrollados para cada contribución, dependiendo de su relatividad a la regulación, en dado caso se les dará preferencia sobre casos mas lejanos, los cuales serán brevemente mencionados.


El primer informe bibliográfico se propone a presentar, de un lado, el problema general del libro, y del otro, de subrayar dos contribuciones históricas (1920-1930/2001-2007).



ITALIAN

Lo scopo di questo lavoro collettivo è capire le cause della crisi finanziaria. Tale lavoro ha una forte dimensione internazionale e si posiziona in un contesto legale ed economico. Sebbene composto da contributori indipendenti l’un dall’altro, si fonda su una problematica generale, il cui riassunto sarà l’oggetto principale di questa prima relazione bibliografica. L’importanza di tale studio è tale da giustificare i tre articoli che seguiranno su tale lavoro. Inoltre, questo lavoro di ricerca si focalizza sul tema specifico della governance in materia di finanza internazionale, e tocca diversi temi relativi alla regolazione che non possono essere ridotti o confusi l’un con l’altro. Pertanto, per tutti e tre questi articoli bibliografici, gli abstract saranno più o meno approfonditi su tali contribuzioni, a seconda del fatto che tale contribuzione sia rilevante ai fini dell’analisi della regolazione, nel qual caso l’abstract sarà più consistente, o se la contribuzione tocchi solo incidentalmente la regolazione, nel qual caso gli abstract saranno più corti.
La prima relazione bibliografica punta, da un lato, a presentare la problematica generale di tale lavoro e, dall’altro, ad attirare l’attenzione su due contribuzioni, di natura storica.


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Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Jan. 16, 2012 (Initial publication: Oct. 6, 2011)

Translated Summaries

Updated: Dec. 21, 2011 (Initial publication: Nov. 17, 2011)

Contributions

Updated: Dec. 12, 2011 (Initial publication: Nov. 30, 2011)

Sectorial Analysis

Translated Summaries

In The Journal of Regulation the summaries’ translation are done by the Editors and not by the authors


ENGLISH

On 16 November 2011, Moody’s downgraded twelve public-sector German banks, after regulatory changes in Germany and the EU.

 

FRENCH

Le 16 novembre 2011, Moody"s a dégradé douze banques publiques allemandes, après des changements dans la régulation financière en Allemagne et dans l’Union Européenne.


SPANISH

El 16 de noviembre del 2011, Moody’s degradó doce bancos del sector público alemán, después de cambios regulatorios en Alemania y la UE.


ITALIAN

Il 16 novembre 2011, Moody’s ha declassato dodici banche tedesche del settore pubblico, dopo dei cambiamenti nella regolazione finanziaria in Germania e nell’Unione europea.

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Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Dec. 8, 2011 (Initial publication: Sept. 22, 2011)

Releases : Neutrality in Systems of Economic Regulation

Updated: Oct. 27, 2011 (Initial publication: Oct. 6, 2011)

Releases : Neutrality in Systems of Economic Regulation

Translated Summaries

In The Journal of Regulation the summaries’ translation are done by the Editors and not by the authors


ENGLISH:

Nowadays, it’s necessary to define, initially, the framework of an impact survey. An impact survey is an analysis estimating the economic consequences of a bill (in Europe or in the US) in order to limit, reduce or compensate for negative impacts. It requires the prior adoption of the text.


ITALIAN

Nei giorni nostri, è necessario definire, inizialmente, la struttura di una valutazione d’impatto. Una valutazione d’impatto è uno studio che cerca di fare una stima delle conseguenze economiche dell’adozione di una legge (in Europa o negli Stati Uniti) in modo tale da limitare, ridurre o compensare le sue conseguenze negative. Tuttavia questo richiede l’adozione preliminare del testo.

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Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Oct. 7, 2011 (Initial publication: Oct. 5, 2011)

Contributions

Updated: Oct. 3, 2011 (Initial publication: Sept. 28, 2011)

Contributions

Updated: Oct. 3, 2011 (Initial publication: Sept. 21, 2011)

Contributions

Updated: Sept. 21, 2011 (Initial publication: Sept. 21, 2011)

Sectorial Analysis

Translated Summaries


ENGLISH

On the 16 september 2011, the German Land of Schleswig-Holstein is the first in Germany to implement a law on online gambling, which appears to be one of the most modern and liberal in Europe.


FRENCH

Le 16 septembre 2011, le land allemand de Schleswig-Holstein est le premier en Allemagne à appliquer une loi sur les jeux en ligne, qui semble être l’une des plus modernes et des plus libérales en Europe.


SPANISH

Informe Temático (el Juego): El Land of Schleswig-Holstein alemán implementa una nueva ley sobre el juego en la red.

El 16 de septiembre del 2011, el Land of Schleswig-Holstein alemán es el primero en Alemania de implementar una ley sobre el juego en la red, lo cual aparenta ser una de los más modernos y liberales en Europa.

 

 

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Other translations forthcoming.