Mise à jour : 19 juin 2012 (Rédaction initiale : 12 juin 2012 )

Sur le vif

On 7 June 2012, in Copenhague, at the Institute of International Finance (IIF) analysed the impact of the new regulatory regime on banks, credit and systemic risk and the new challenges facing Europe. He took act that Zero growth is expected, european unemployemt is at 10%, many firms have difficulties to finance new projects and spending for innovation is down. I said that European leaders need to do more, even if they have already done much. They are obtaining a new fiscal compact, which requires very strict rules on government deficits and agreed on a close coordination of our national economic policies, notably though the "European semester" including a collective right to review the annual budget of each Member State before it is finalised. But to restore the citizens’ trust, Regulation must be developped.

Mise à jour : 11 juin 2012 (Rédaction initiale : 23 mai 2012 )

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Les services d'intérêt économique général et le marché intérieur : régimes nationaux et cadre juridique européen

Mise à jour : 4 juin 2012 (Rédaction initiale : 27 mai 2012 )

Sur le vif

In 2009, a European Observatory of counterfeiting and piracy was established. In May 2012, the European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights took its place, by the effect of a European Union regulation on 19 April 2012. This Observatory has the purpose to improve the understanding of the value of the rights of intellectual property, to measure their effectiveness and to promote the approximation of the laws of the Member States in this area. To do this, it organises meetings between administrations and the private sector and collects information about the laws and applicable case-law. States have to inform him.

Mise à jour : 21 décembre 2011 (Rédaction initiale : 5 décembre 2011 )


Mise à jour : 12 décembre 2011 (Rédaction initiale : 5 décembre 2011 )

Parutions : I. Articles Isolés

Translated Summaries

In The Journal of Regulation the summaries’ translation are done by the Editors and not by the authors


In order to establish a competitive energy market, the distribution infrastructure, as a monopolistic segment of energy networks, should be demonopolized. Instruments of economic regulation, which are often attributed ex ante character, are put in place to open the market and enable competitive forces. Unbundling is specific for it may also represent an ex post measure of a structural nature, exerted by competition protection authorities.



Afin d’établir un marché énergétique compétitif, l’infrastructure de distribution, en tant qu’il est un segment monopolistique des réseaux d’énergie, devrait être libéralisé. Les instruments de régulation économique, qui sont souvent attribués d’une façon ex ante, sont mises en place pour ouvrir le marché et rendent possibles les forces concurrentielles. Le dégroupage est spécifique, car il peut aussi représenter une mesure ex post de nature structurelle, exercée par les autorités de protection de la concurrence.


Per costruire un mercato concorrenziale dell’energia, le infrastrutture di distribuzione, in quanto segmento monopolistico delle reti di energia, dovrebbero essere liberalizzate. A tal fine, sono applicati dei meccanismi di regolazione economica, spesso previsti ex ante, per aprire il mercato e permettere le forze concorrenziali. L’unbundling è particolare, in quanto potrebbe anche costituire un provvedimento ex post di natura strutturale, utilizzato dalle autorità di tutela della libera concorrenza.


Other translations forthcoming.