Sept. 6, 2017

Breaking news

Regulation of the digital world, we agree on its necessity, we talk about it a lot but it is difficult to do it.

The stakes are multiple: management of innovation, protection of people, treatment of different sorts of powers, future of the human being, the Politics and the Judge being like a bullet that ricochets between these 4 subjects.

It then rediscovers that the first "regulators" are the Governments and that the first modality of the Regulation Law  is the taxation.

Notably in the digital field and even more so in the face of GAFA.


Indeed, the 4 American companies, Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon, admit the need for rules but propose self-regulation or co-regulation. These would include not only their own behavior, but also those of others, including the fight against terrorism. Maybe, when one is stronger than the States, he should substitute himself for their core business....

Undoubtedly being dispossessed of the regalian, Europe today demands "accounts" to the GAFA in the literal sense of the term. Indeed, the French and German governments will table in September a tax proposal specific to the GAFA, the fruit of which will come back to the countries where they earn their income.

Concerned companies replied that in the tax system everyone has the right to be skilled and to organize at the best, so long as one does not fall into the abuse. In accordance with this legal conception, the French administrative high Court (Conseil d’État) has just recalled it in an important decision to their benefit.

In August 2017, the French Minister of Economy and Finance, Bruno Lemaire, justified  the reiteration of his will to tax them, raising this issue at European level in the name of "distributive justice", the Law being defined as what gives everyone his share. This is a strong but dangerous argument, for while it is true that in the very function of taxation, correlated with public finances, the redistributive function is essential, tax optimization becomes staggering.

In a more convincing and regulatory way, this measure of equity is presented as correlated to the construction of the European digital market. It is an economic conception. To the extent that European taxation is still embryonic, its link with such a construction would make it possible to see in vivo the strength of the tax tool in Regulation Law, more than ever distant from Competition Law.

It is in this context, and because the European Digital Market must be built at forceps, since the GAFA will benefit from it, but also must participate in its construction, that such an investment sharing is justified.

March 8, 2016

Thesaurus

Complete reference : Ossege, Ch. (dir.), European Regulatory Agencies in EU Decision-Making.Between Expertise and Influence , Palgrave MacMillan, 2016, 216 p.

Read the cover back.

Read the table of contents

March 7, 2015

Bibliographic Reports : Books

It is often argued that energy because it is a matter of sovereignty and because it is rooted in the territory, returns to the State. But it is resolutely towards Europe that Michel Derdevet pulls the whole system.

Probably by conviction, by will of a strong Europe and because there has economic power only when propped on energy. However, an energy system that is up by networks as in energy, we never doubted the convergence between the container and the content, meaning that the energy source is irrelevant whitout being carried, whitout being 'provided to users.

This construction of the networks is political and it is in terms of "mesh" that the report Michel Derdevet just submitted to the President of the Republic, François Hollande, presents a European project. In a way, it is not "revolutionary", as it is to finally fulfill the will of those who conceived Europe in 1945 through the coal, steel and energy, to a common Europe from which built the industry, not only for the reconstruction of Europe but for its economic dynamism and its common security policy.

In this, the European network of the transportation of electricity is essential. Yet it is to be done because the legislation of the European Union rather liberalized energy markets whitout building Europe of energy, leaving remaining national specificities. The result is what Michel Derdevet rightly called "inertia".

He therefore proposes the establishment of an "European industrial project." In this context, Michel Derdevet requires better definition of "model of norms and regulation", aiming in particular the structure of tariffs that include or not the R & D according to the Member States, claiming the alignment of the tasks of network operators and a price guarantee for users, which would facilitate investment. He stressed that national regulatory differences hinder the development of smart grids (and therefore the European market). Without a convergence of regulations, interoperability is not optimal, as it would allow Europe to be a major global player in energy.

Michel Derdevet therefore advocates regulation that goes to both a stronger European articulation, but at the same time which must be more "decentralized", for users to make better use of new uses of energy through the action of regulators they are close.

It is true that we are very far off ...

This is why the author asks what one favors "regulatory convergence". This is not only to harmonize rules but also to redirect them to detach the competitive prism to direct them to the long-term financing.

It is true that Europe's energy, without which a single industrial space can hardly be, can not actually do if the regulation does not resolutely takes over the principle of competition, competition remaining in the moment of exchange, while the Regulation is in the long term and what to take to designate as "industrial policy" which is nothing but a form of expression of the Political.

So what Michel Derdevet request, what ever that finally the arrival of a political Europe, the need for it finds its place in the global competition.

Dec. 18, 2014

Thesaurus : 06. European Commission

Dec. 15, 2014

Breaking news

The European Directive of 22 October 2014 ot the European Parliament and of the Council as regard disclosure of non-financial and diversity information by certain large undertaking  and groupe  comes from afar.

Some present it as a step of an "irrestible rises  of Corporate Social Responsabilité.  This text would be a  a "step forward" and a "strong signal".

It is true the Directive of the European Parliament and the Council follows a consultation conducted for several years by the European Commission on the subject of Social Responsibility. Whatever might have said the "stakeholders", the Directive contains the same lines tham the European Commission Communication of 13 April 2011, adopted on 25 October 2011 on the topic.

It is difficult today to oppose "Hard Law" and "Soft Law": Law hardens gradually. Thus, from the "communication", we went to the "resolutions", whose status remains uncertain, both a communication firmer but less binding than a law, since resolution is only for its author ... Thus Parliament in its resolutions of 6 February 2013 'resolved' to design an "inclusive" vision of the corporate action, to dance together profitability and social justice. To get by,  it must suffice to say that the Social Responsibility Company is "multidimensional" ... Guidelines of the European Commission (non-binding) will explicit. Wait and see.

Following a series of obligations on information that companies must make available "to the public and authorities." Thus, companies must do the work instead of public authorities themselves. The provisions relating to non-financial information are mandatory and standardized. They are particularly demanding on the environment.

But when the text provides more substantial obligations, such as making the activity business less polluting, the Directive simply ask the member states to encourage companies to adopt "best practices" in the field. The market itself is incitative, in particular for making boards of large corporations more diverses. Because the principle is the belief that "investor access to non-financial information is a step towards achieving the goal of effective .... Europe in the use of resources," in a regulatory context of a "smart, sustainable and inclusive" growth".

 

Feb. 5, 2014

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Updated: Sept. 25, 2012 (Initial publication: April 11, 2012)

Sectorial Analysis

Translated summaries

The translated summaries are done by the Editors and not by the Authors.

ENGLISH

The 12th General Assembly of the Association of Mediterranean Regulators for Electricity and Gas (MEDREG) was held at the headquarters of the Greek Regulatory Authority of Energy (RAE), on 14 December 2011. On this occasion, members of MEDREG have approved the initial proposals made by the Task Force devoted to investments in energy infrastructure, aiming to stimulate investment in the Mediterranean region. The MEDRED also exercises regulatory powers similar to those of ACER.

FRENCH

La 12ème Assemblée Générale de l’Association des Régulateurs Méditerranéens de l’Electricité et du Gaz (MEDREG) s’est tenue au siège de l’Autorité grecque de Régulation de l’Energie (RAE), le 14 décembre 2011. A cette occasion, les membres de MEDREG ont approuvé les premières propositions émises par la Task Force consacrée aux investissements dans les infrastructures énergétiques, ayant pour objectif de stimuler les investissements dans la région de la Méditerranée. La MEDRED exerce en outre des pouvoirs de régulation analogues à ceux de l’ACER.


Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 13, 2012)

Breaking news

The European Commission has published its institutional architecture of the Union Bank, which is being built in Europe. The primary role is entrusted to the European Central Bank. The ECB shall have power to issue licenses to the 6000 banks acting in the euro area. This institution will supervise to ensure compliance and liquidity. It will restore compliance if necessary. It will have power to impose sanctions, ranging from fines to withdrawal of approval. Thus, institutional reform leads to an extreme centralization of power, national authorities no longer as relays

Updated: June 11, 2012 (Initial publication: May 23, 2012)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Les services d'intérêt économique général et le marché intérieur : régimes nationaux et cadre juridique européen

Updated: June 9, 2012 (Initial publication: June 9, 2012)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Les aspects juridiques de la régulation européenne des réseaux

Updated: June 8, 2012 (Initial publication: June 1, 2012)

Breaking news

On 31 May, 2012 Mr Jörg Asmussen member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank, said at a Conference behind closed doors in Frankfurt that the situation of Europe requires the establishment of an integrated supervisory banking in the euro area on the more systemic banks, which we can assess the number to 25. To do this, they should be supervised directly by a supranational regulatory authority and not by their national authority. Reuter was in favour of this statement. The European Central Bank spokesman confirmed the quote.

Updated: June 4, 2012 (Initial publication: May 27, 2012)

Breaking news

In 2009, a European Observatory of counterfeiting and piracy was established. In May 2012, the European Observatory on Infringements of Intellectual Property Rights took its place, by the effect of a European Union regulation on 19 April 2012. This Observatory has the purpose to improve the understanding of the value of the rights of intellectual property, to measure their effectiveness and to promote the approximation of the laws of the Member States in this area. To do this, it organises meetings between administrations and the private sector and collects information about the laws and applicable case-law. States have to inform him.

Dec. 4, 2002

Thesaurus : 05. Court of Justice of the European Union

1964, 15 July, Costa v./ E.N.L.

Dec. 22, 2003

Thesaurus : 05. Court of Justice of the European Union

1978, 22 may, Simmenthal v./European Commission

Updated: May 22, 2012 (Initial publication: May 28, 2012)

Breaking news

In its thesis, the author shows the legal side of the opening to competition in the telecommunications, postal services and energy sectors. The analysis is conducted at European level and not at national States level. The author not only highlights the decisive role of the European Commission, which obtained the consent of the national bodies through co-regulation, but the book highlights a distinct European institutional dynamics. This takes the form of European sectoral agencies, which could become in the future regulators. Strengthening European can in the future, according to the author, take the form either of a even stronger involvement of the European Commission, or a consecration of these European sectoral agencies emerging.

Updated: May 9, 2012 (Initial publication: April 15, 2012)

Breaking news

Vogel, David, The Politics of precaution: Regulating Health, Safety and Environmental Risks in Europe and the United States, Princetown University Press, 2012, 332 pp.

Updated: April 3, 2012 (Initial publication: March 26, 2012)

Contributions

Updated: Jan. 31, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 13, 2012)

Contributions

Updated: Jan. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 13, 2012)

Bibliographic Reports : Books

Translated summaries

 

The translated summaries are done by the Editors and not by the Authors



ENGLISH

The purpose of this collective work is to understand the causes of the financial crisis. It has a strong international dimension and draws in both legal and economic science. Although composed of independent contributions from each other, it relies on a general demonstration, summary of which will largely be the focus of this first bibliographic report, the importance of justifying the work that results in three successive bibliographic reports. Furthermore, the book focuses on the specific issue of governance in international finance, which runs through regulatory issues, but one cannot be reduced to the other and vice versa.

Therefore in all three bibliographic records, abstracts will be more or less developed on the contributions, depending on whether they directly concerned by regulation, in which case they will be preferred or more remote areas, in which case they will shortly exposed.

The first bibliographic record aims to present, on the one hand, the general problem of the book, and also to highlight two contributions of historical (1920-1930/2001-2007).



FRENCH

Fiche Bibliographique (Livre) : La globalisation de l’intégration financière. Perspective de trente ans, de la réforme à la crise)


Cet ouvrage collectif a pour objet de comprendre les causes de la crise financière. Il présente une dimension fortement internationale et puise à la fois dans la science juridique et économique. Bien que constitué de contributions autonomes les unes des autres, il s’appuie sur une démonstration générale, dont le résumé sera en grande partie l’objet de cette première fiche bibliographique, l’importance de l’ouvrage justifiant qu’il donne lieu à a trois fiches bibliographiques successives. En outre, l’ouvrage porte sur la question précise de la gouvernance dans la finance internationale, ce qui traverse les questions de régulation mais l’un ne se réduit à l’autre et vice et versa.

C’est pourquoi dans chacune des trois fiches bibliographiques, des résumés seront plus au moins développés concernant des contributions, suivant que celles-ci abordent directement des thèmes de régulation, auquel cas elles seront privilégiées, ou des thèmes plus éloignés, auquel cas elles ne seront qu’évoquées.

Cette première fiche bibliographique a pour objet de présenter d’une part la problématique générale de l’ouvrage et d’autre part de mettre en valeur deux contributions, de nature historique (1920-1930/2001-2007).



SPANISH

Informe Bibliográfico (Libro): La Integración Global Financiera, perspectivas desde 30 años. De la reforma hasta la crisis.

El objetivo de este trabajo colectivo es de entender las causas de la crisis financiera. Contiene una gran dimensión internacional y se apoya tanto en las ciencias legales como en las económicas. Aunque es una colección de contribuciones independientes el uno del otro, todos tienen en común una dimensión general, lo cual será detallado en el primer informe bibliográfico, la importancia de justificar el trabajo que resulta en tres informes bibliográficos sucesivos. El libro se centra en el tema específico de la gobernabilidad en la finanza internacional, la cual se relaciona a la regulación, pero uno no se reduce al otro y viceversa.


Por lo tanto, en cada uno de los tres informes bibliográficos, abstractos serán desarrollados para cada contribución, dependiendo de su relatividad a la regulación, en dado caso se les dará preferencia sobre casos mas lejanos, los cuales serán brevemente mencionados.


El primer informe bibliográfico se propone a presentar, de un lado, el problema general del libro, y del otro, de subrayar dos contribuciones históricas (1920-1930/2001-2007).



ITALIAN

Lo scopo di questo lavoro collettivo è capire le cause della crisi finanziaria. Tale lavoro ha una forte dimensione internazionale e si posiziona in un contesto legale ed economico. Sebbene composto da contributori indipendenti l’un dall’altro, si fonda su una problematica generale, il cui riassunto sarà l’oggetto principale di questa prima relazione bibliografica. L’importanza di tale studio è tale da giustificare i tre articoli che seguiranno su tale lavoro. Inoltre, questo lavoro di ricerca si focalizza sul tema specifico della governance in materia di finanza internazionale, e tocca diversi temi relativi alla regolazione che non possono essere ridotti o confusi l’un con l’altro. Pertanto, per tutti e tre questi articoli bibliografici, gli abstract saranno più o meno approfonditi su tali contribuzioni, a seconda del fatto che tale contribuzione sia rilevante ai fini dell’analisi della regolazione, nel qual caso l’abstract sarà più consistente, o se la contribuzione tocchi solo incidentalmente la regolazione, nel qual caso gli abstract saranno più corti.
La prima relazione bibliografica punta, da un lato, a presentare la problematica generale di tale lavoro e, dall’altro, ad attirare l’attenzione su due contribuzioni, di natura storica.


.....................

Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Jan. 16, 2012 (Initial publication: Oct. 12, 2011)

Translated Summaries

Updated: Jan. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 10, 2012)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

La régulation des services publics en Europe

Updated: Jan. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 10, 2012)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Regulatory Reform in Europe

Updated: Jan. 3, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 2, 2012)

Contributions

Updated: Jan. 2, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 2, 2012)

Releases : Neutrality in Systems of Economic Regulation

Translated Summaries

In The Journal of Regulation the summaries’ translation are done by the Editors and not by the authors


ENGLISH

The debate on Net Neutrality faces a major difficulty, namely that of its legal status: does there exist a “legal principle”—meaning a rule somewhere within the entire body of law—with mandatory force that could be used to counter infrastructure operators’ discriminatory practices?

 

FRENCH

Le débat sur la neutralité du Net fait face à une difficulté majeure, à savoir son statut juridique: existe-t-il un «principe juridique», qui exprime une règle dans l’ensemble du système juridique - avec une force obligatoire qui pourrait être utilisée pour contrer les pratiques discriminatoires des opérateurs d’ infrastructure ?


SPANISH

El debate sobre la Neutralidad de la Red se enfrenta a una gran dificultad, primordialmente en cuanto a su estatus legal: ¿realmente existe un “principio legal” – es decir, una regla que se encuentra dentro de la disciplina del derecho – con fuerza mandataria que podría ser usado para enfrentar a las prácticas discriminatorios que practican los operadores de infraestructura?


ITALIAN

Il dibattito sulla neutralità della rete si trova di fronte ad una difficoltà rilevante dal punto di vista del suo fondamento giuridico: esiste una norma giuridica obbligatoria – intesa come una norma legale – che possa essere utilizzata contro le pratiche discriminatorie degli operatori?


....................

Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: Jan. 2, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 2, 2012)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

Comment l'Europe construit la société civile