July 15, 2016

Breaking news

In Senegal, the Autorité de régulation des télécommunications et des postes (ARTP ; English translation: Telecommunications and Posts Regulatory Authority) has, just like all regulators, inherent powers to impose sanctions. In general, the important thing is not only to exercise this sanctioning power but to exercise it in a way that reinforces the authority of the Regulator. In this perspective, the new Sonatel sanction decision is important. 

As a sanctions always carry a heavier weight when people are made aware of it, the Director General of the Artp issued a press release, that has been flagged as particularly important, and held a press conference (in French) on a particularly serious sanction imposed following what the Regulator considers as the non-fulfilment of obligations stemming from formal notices (which, by the way, the telecom operator challenges on the merits).

On 21 November 2014 indeed, the Sonatel was given a formal notice from the Artp to respect consumer rights. As the code of telecommunications provides since its modification in 2014, operators shall "prendre les mesures appropriées de dimensionnement de leurs réseaux de nature à garantir à leurs clients un accès ininterrompu à leur service client commercial ou technique en respectant un taux d’efficacité minimal" (translation: "take appropriate measures to size their networks in a way that provides their consumers with an uninterrupted access to their customer service (sales service and technical support) which would respect a minimum efficiency rate") set by the Regulator itself- as to, namely, ensure that the right of consumers to be informed is satisfied (as regards billing mechanisms) and that their calls to consumer services remain free of charge. As the Regulator estimated that the Sonatel was not complying with such regulations, it conducted a formal investigation and notified a statement of objections to the operator, before sending on 28 January 2015 a second formal notice for the same reasons. 

On 14 July 2016, the Regulator imposed a sanction on Sonatel since the it still estimated that the operator's behavior still was not leading to a compliant situation as regards the consumer right to be informed. The sanction, as stated in the Sonatel decision, is 13 billion 959 million FCfa (c. €20m), i.e., 15% of Sonatel's 2015 turnover. The sanction decision also provides that if the operator does not enforce it, an additional penalty of 10m FCfa (c. €15,000) per day will be charged.

The operator, however, challenges this sanction insofar as it estimates that its behavior is not to be blamed. To support its claim, Sonatel avails itself from the fact that upon reception of the first formal notice, it undertook a 'progressive compliance' with the requirements process as regards its network, then let the Regulator know about it, etc. It is henceforth to lodge an appeal. 

The issue at stake, therefore, is to know whether the obligations on operators are obligations regarding the means used (that is to say, means obligations), or, conversely, if they are obligations to produce results (performance obligations). If they are means obligations, then the operator is right. However, considering the efficiency and effectivity principes that are closely linked with the teleological nature of Regulation, it is more likely that such obligations are performance obligations. 

For instance, in France, the Commission Informatiques et Libertés (French Data Protection Authority- CNIL) considered on 1 March 2016!footnote-42 that the obligations on operators to have accurate and complete data are performance obligations and not mere means obligations. 

Thus, there is probably more to follow with this Sonatel decision. The day the press release was issued, the operator stated it intended to lodge a hierarchical appeal before the Minister. 

The next day, the Director General of the Artp stated in the press (in French) that under the Senegal law, the appeal could only be lodged before a jurisdiction, or before... the Regulatory Authority itself (request for reconsideration - in French : "recours gracieux").

This situation is thus a great reminder that new illustrations of the interplays between Regulation and Politics can always be found.

Updated: Sept. 19, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 5, 2012)

Sectorial Analysis

Translated Summaries

In The Journal of Regulation the summaries’ translation are done by the Editors and not by the authors


On December 20, 2011, the Autorité de Régulation des Communications électroniques et de la Poste (ARCEP — French postal and telecommunications regulator) fined La Poste, France’s universal postal service provider, one million Euros for not having provided an easily-available and affordable priority mail service for the shipment of low-value objects weighing less than two kilograms. This failure was in disregard of the regulator’s injunction, French legislation, and European directives.



Par une décision du 20 décembre 2011, l’Autorité de Régulation des Communications Electroniques et de la Poste (ARCEP), condamne à une amende d’un million d’Euros l’opérateur en charge du service universel, La Poste, car celle-ci n’a pas offert d’une façon accessible et abordable, sur un modèle proche de la « lettre », l’envoi d’objet de faible valeur de moins de deux kilos. En cela, l’opérateur a méconnu la mise en demeure du régulateur, la loi française et les directives communautaires.


El 20 de diciembre del 2011, la Autorité de Régulation des Communications électroniques et de la Poste (ARCEP – el Regulador francés de servicios postales y telecomunicaciones) multaron a La Poste, el proveedor universal de servicios postales en Francia, un millón de Euros por no haber proveído un acceso fácil y asequible a un servicio postal prioritario por el envío de objetos de poco valor pesando menos de dos kilogramos. Este fallo fue un acto de indiferencia del mandamiento judicial del regulador, de la legislación francesa y de las directivas europeas.


Il 20 dicembre 2011 l’“Autorité de Régulation des Communications électroniques et de la Poste (ARCEP – l’autorità di regolazione francese in materia di servizi postali e telecomunicazione) ha fatto una multa a “Le Poste”, fornitore francese del servizio universale di posta, per un importo di un milione di euro per non aver fornito un servizio di posta celere accessibile e affidabile per la consegna di oggetti di poco valore e di un peso inferiore ai due chili. La Poste ha quindi commesso tale infrazione violando la diffida dell’autorità di regolazione, la legislazione francese e le direttive europee.


منذ قرار20 ديسمبر 2011 السُّلطة التنظيمية للاتصالات الإلكترونية و البريد( عادل فرنسي للاتصالات و البريد) ، حكمت علا المشغل المسؤول عن الخدمة العالمي ، البريد*(نِظام بريدي فِرنسِي)، بِدفع غرامة قدرُها مِليون يورو. هذه لم توفِّر سُهولة تُماثِل "الرِّسالة" لإرسال أشياء ضعيفة القيمة ذُو وزن أقل من اثنان كيلوغرام العامل تجاهل إنذار المُنظّم، القانُون الفرنسي و التوجيهات المُجتمعِية.
 *La Poste : نِظام بريدي فرنسي


Other translations forthcoming.

Updated: April 3, 2012 (Initial publication: March 12, 2012)


Updated: Jan. 7, 2012 (Initial publication: Jan. 6, 2012)


Updated: Dec. 4, 2011 (Initial publication: Oct. 10, 2011)

Thesaurus : Doctrine

coll. "Manuel", LGDJ, Paris, 2011, 384 p.

Updated: Aug. 30, 2011 (Initial publication: June 3, 2011)


Updated: June 28, 2011 (Initial publication: May 28, 2011)

Releases : I. Isolated Articles


In the most developed nations, as in emerging countries, the economy and society are currently being entirely transformed by an industrial revolution originating in information and communication technologies.

Anti-competitive Behaviour Audacity - Autorité de Régulation des Communications Electroniques et des Postes (ARCEP - French Electronic Communications and Posts Regulator) - Communication - Competition - Confidence - Cooperation - Darwin - Digital revolution - Discrimination - European Commission - Ex ante / Ex post - Fiber optic - Future - impredictibility - Information - Infostructure - Infrastructure - Innovation - Internet - Lamarck - Napoleon - Network - Overregulation - Risk - Uncertainty - Underregulation *

* In The Journal of Regulation, these keywords are done by the Editor and not by the Author.


Articolo: Innovazione e regolazione al servizio della rivoluzione digitale

Nelle nazioni le più sviluppate, nonché negli stati in via di sviluppo, l’economia e la società sono completamente trasformati da un rivoluzione industriale che trova le sue origini nelle teconologie d’informazione e di comunicazione.

Autorité de Régulation des Communications Electroniques et des Postes (ARCEP – Autorità francese di regolazione dei servizi postali e di telecomunicazione) – Commissione Europea - Comportamento anticoncorrenziale – Comunicazione – Concorrenza – Cooperazione – Darwin – Deregolamentazione - Discriminazione - Ex ante / Ex post – Fibra ottica – Imprevisibilità – Incertezza - Inflazione normativa - Informazione – Infostruttura – Infrastruttura – Innovazione – Internet – Lamarck – Napoleone – Rete – Rischio - Rivoluzione digitale *

* In The Journal of Regulation, le parole chiave sono responsabilità dell’Editore e non dall’Autore.


Artigo: Inovação e Renovação a serviço da Revolução digital.

Nos países mais desenvolvidos, bem como nos em desenvolvimento, a economia e a sociedade vem sendo, atualmente, completamente transformados por uma revolução industrial baseada em tecnologias da informação e da comunicação.

Comportamento anti-concurrencial – Autoridade de regulação das comunicações eletrônicas e dos correios (ARCEP – Regulador francês de Comunicações e dos Correios) – Comunicação – Concorrência – Confiança – Cooperação – Darwin - Revolução digital – Discriminação – Comissão Europeia – Ex ante / Ex post – Fibra ótica – Futuro – Imprevisibilidade - Informação – Info-estrutura – Infra-estrutura – Inovação – Internet – Lamarck – Napoleão – Rede – Sobre-regulação – Risco – Incerteza – Sub-regulação.*

 * No Journal of Regulation, as palavras-chave são fornecidas pelo Diretor, e não pelo Autor.


Artículo: Innovación y regulación sirviendo la revolución digital

En las naciones más desarrolladas, tal como en los países emergentes, la economía y la sociedad están actualmente siendo transformadas por una revolución industrial provenientes de las tecnologías informáticas y de telecomunicaciones.



Other translations forthcoming.