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Updated: Dec. 6, 2012 (Initial publication: Dec. 5, 2012)

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L'Union Internationale des Télécommunications (U.I.T.), entité de l'ONU, se réunit depuis le 3 et jusqu'au 15 décembre et voudrait prendre des dispositions pour "réguler Internet", à l'occasion de la renégociation entre les Etats du Réglement des Télécommunications Internationales (R.T.I. Etait envisagée que l'U.I.T. devienne le régulateur mondial d'Internet. Comme l'avait fait avant elle le Sénat, la Chambre des Représentants a exprimé son opposition de principe car l'Internet doit demeurer "non régulé", ce qui équivaut à l'expression de la liberté, concrétisée notamment par Google. On peut s'interroger s'il s'agit vraiment de la défense de biens publics (liberté, information) de d'intérêts privés (Google), mais il demeure que la régulation d'Internet n'est plus à l'ordre du jour.

Updated: Nov. 26, 2012 (Initial publication: Nov. 26, 2012)

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La banque UBS a informé le 26 novembre 2012 qu'elle avait sanctionné par la Financial Services Authority (FSA) pour un comportement illicite de son ex-trader. Son communiqué insiste sur le fait que l'amende est moindre de 30% que celle qui aurait pu être prononcée, car la banque a, depuis la découverte du manquement, amélioré ses contrôles internes et la formation de son personnel. En considération de cette amélioration de gouvernance, qui donne un gage de bon fonctionnement du système à l'avenir, le régulateur, à l'intérieur même de son système de sanction, adoucit celui-ci. On mesure ici que la sanction ex post est utilisée comme moyen ex ante pour construire une plus efficace gouvernance, partie intégrante de la régulation financière et bancaire.

Updated: Nov. 20, 2012 (Initial publication: Oct. 5, 2012)

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La régulation bancaire européenne est toujours en attente de réforme, les Etats-Unis ayant adapté les règles par la loi Dodd-Frank, notamment via la règle Volcker qui exige au sein des banques la séparation de certaines activités et interdit aux banques de dépôt une liste d'activités. En Europe, le Royaume-Uni dispose du rapport de la Commission Vickers, qui prône un système beaucoup plus radical et d'une autre nature, à savoir la séparation entre les banques de dépôt et les banques d'investissement. La Commission Européenne a demandé sur le même thème un rapport à la Commission Liikanen. Celle-ci a rendu son rapport le 2 octobre, dont les conclusions se situent entre les deux. Le rapport ne demande pas la séparation préservant le modèle continental de la banque universelle, mais préconise à l'intérieur des banques la séparation des activités non-risquées de gestion de fonds (qui continueraient d'être garanties par l'Eat) et des activités risquées de gestions de fonds (qui cesseraient de bénéficier d'une telle garantie).

Updated: Oct. 7, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 20, 2012)

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Chaque année, en France, la Haute Autorité de Santé (French National Autority for Health) établi un "projet d'établissement". Le 18 septembre 2013, son président a indiqué ce qui sera la ligne de force du projet pour 2013. En effet, le "seul objectif sera de faire de la qualité un outil de la régulation". On comprend ainsi que tous les outils techniques à la disposition de l'autorité, évaluation, certifications, accréditions, sont utilisés de cette façon. On peut se réjouir de l'unicité de l'outil, alors que la régulation souffre souvent de poursuivre plusieurs buts. Mais l'expression même selon laquelle la qualité peut être un "outil de régulation" est difficile à comprendre, car la qualité paraît davantage pouvoir être un critère qu'un outil.

Updated: Oct. 5, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 18, 2012)

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La régulation des marchés agricoles, devenus fortement spéculatifs, est un enjeu technique et politique. Le 17 septembre 2012, le Président français, entouré de ses ministres, a reçu le directeur général du F.A.O. Ils ont insisté sur la nécessité de réguler non seulement le prix des matières premières agricoles, mais encore de constituer des réserves et de faciliter des réformes structurelles dans certains pays, notamment autour de la zone du Sahel. En tout cas, il est acquis que le mécanisme de l'offre et de la demande ne peut être laissé à lui-même.

Updated: Sept. 25, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 25, 2012)

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This book is written in French. Its topic is about New Regulations in Electricity Sector Complete reference : LAPEYRE, M. (dir.), Les nouvelles régulations électriques, 2 tomes, Lavoisier, Paris, 2012, 314 p.

Updated: Sept. 20, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 24, 2012)

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Updated: Sept. 18, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 19, 2012)

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Complete reference : GABAIX Xavier, LANDIER Augustin, THESMAR David, La protection du consommateur : rationalité limitée et régulation. Observations by MONGIN Philippe and TIROLE Jean. 2012, 92 pages. Edited by the "Conseil d'analyse économique" Publisher :

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 13, 2012)

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The European Commission has published its institutional architecture of the Union Bank, which is being built in Europe. The primary role is entrusted to the European Central Bank. The ECB shall have power to issue licenses to the 6000 banks acting in the euro area. This institution will supervise to ensure compliance and liquidity. It will restore compliance if necessary. It will have power to impose sanctions, ranging from fines to withdrawal of approval. Thus, institutional reform leads to an extreme centralization of power, national authorities no longer as relays

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 13, 2012)

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The creator of Wikileads, Julian Assange, has been the subject of a documentary which was screened on British television Channel 4, in which he is seen dancing in a night club. Believing that there is a violation of his privacy, he seized the British media regulator, Ofcom. The latter, by a decision of 10 September 2010, rejected the complaint, based not so much on the argument that it is a public place and that the image has already been circulated but rather the plaintiff has been associated with the development of documentary and he could give additional facts or contradictory arguments to those gathered by the channel. Is measured here that could be the office of a controller wich supports both the regulation of content and container.

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 12, 2012)

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The case of Libor continues to produce its effects. Some of its ramifications are jurisdictional, through prosecution for price manipulation or cartel, some are normative, through institutional reflections about reforms deemed necessary of the Libor mechanism. After UK, it's the turn for the European Commission to organize a large consultation about it.

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 11, 2012)

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Germany is characterized in that in Europe generally has refused liberalization of the gambling industry. For this, it will incur remonstrance’s from the European Commission. But this issue is the responsibility of the Länder. That is why, when the Land of Schleswig-Holsteing decided in April 2011 to open the sector to competition online games, Everyone saw a sign of liberalism and compliance with European lines. But the government of this land has changed in May 2012 to make way for a coalition, it seems more favorable to a closure of that activity or, at lesse, should be left to public monopolies. However, on September 2, 5 licenses are to be given by that Government to the major operators of online games, which shows that the line previously adopted market-opening games online is maintained, unlike the rest of the Germany.

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 10, 2012)

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We cannot properly design and build banking regulation, or run it well if you do not have a clear idea of what a bank is and what it is for. However, it is precisely this criticism has formulated the Managing General of the Financial Services Authority (FSA) September 5, 2012: the banks do not know who they are, what they serve. Indeed, the regulator imputes many dysfunctional banking system and financial banking to agents that behave like ordinary product vendors, products which are financial products, in exchange for which they receive a commission. In contrary, the regulator believes that the bank does not have a sales business but a service activity: that of serving the interests of his client. It was forgotten, he said, and the cause for many ills.

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 9, 2012)

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In Cameroon, the electricity sector is organized around a public operator, the Aes-Sonel, which the State conceded the transmission and distribution of electricity. The “Agence de Régulation du Secteur de l’Energie – ARSEL ( Cameroons Regulatory Agency Electricity Sector ) is responsible for ensuring the proper functioning of the system, quality of service and consumer protection. As in other African countries for the moment the country suffers from a lack of electrification planning and a lack of access to electricity, a significant portion of the population. However, the regulator has commissioned a survey from June 4 to August 16, 2012. He was released on September 5 which he says the study shows that the operator doesn’t provide public service obligations correctly towards consumers. The operator responds by saying that on the one hand the study is not conclusive and that other conditions, external to him, do not bring electricity to everyone but it’s not its fault.

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 8, 2012)

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Libor is the rate set by the bank statements, anticipating purchases liquidity between them. The Libor rate is the result of self-regulation. On this rate, the financial system leans to fix rates many different financial transactions. However, now many banks are sued by authorities, for manipulation. The banks made false statement or organize a cartel, producing a rate in their favor. From the condemnation of the Barclays 26 June 2012 by the Financial Services Authority (FSA), the commencement of proceedings, the constitution of the Commission to think reform Libor estimated pernicious, banks choose their strategy. Most prefer to cooperate fully in themselves investigation leading home and helping the authorities. This was the case of the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS). Today it is the case of Société Générale (SocGen).

Updated: Sept. 17, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 17, 2012)

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A l'occasion du Conseil des Ministres des Finances de l'Union Européenne qui s'est tenu à Chypre le 14 septembre 2012, Michel Barnier, Commission européen au Marché Intérieur a développé la proposition de la Commission européenne d'une supervision bancaire confiée à la Banque Centrale Européenne. Les Britanniques ont fait observer que la supervision bancaire européenne ne concernerait que les pays de la zone euro, alors que la régulation bancaire européenne concerne tous les pays de l'Union européenne, ce qui va poser problème, en raison des liens très forts entre supervision et régulation. Le Commissaire européen a répondu qu'il n'y avait pas problème, car l'European Banking Authority, régulateur de l'Union, concevrait les règles, et la BCE les appliquerait, les deux notions étant par ailleurs distinctes. On peut être éventuellement moins confiant que lui.

Updated: Sept. 14, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 16, 2012)

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Updated: Sept. 14, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 15, 2012)

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Le Ministre britannique des Finances, Georges Osborne, a déclaré au Parlement le 11 septembre que le Royaume-Uni avait besoin d'un Gouverneur de la Banque d'Angleterre crédible à la fois sur les marchés financiers et vis-à-vis des banques. Pour cela, en premier lieu, il va pour la première fois procéder par offre d'emploi dans The Economist et, en second lieu, modifier les conditions d'exercice des fonctions du Gouverneur, n'ayant plus qu'un seul mandat, mais plus long, et étant en charge non seulement de la supervision bancaire mais encore de la stabilité financière.

Updated: Sept. 12, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 14, 2012)

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Les Gouvernements cherchent pour des raisons sociales à faire en sorte que les consommateurs domestiques et les petites entreprises payent peu cher leur énergie. Ils pratiquent donc le gel des tarifs. Le Gouvernement belge n'échappe pas à cette tentation. Mais le régulateur belge de l'énergie, la CREG, après avoir montré ses réticences, a transmis au Gouvernement le 11 septembre 2012, ce qui doit être la méthodologie de fixation des tarifs en la matière. Selon le régulateur, l'évolution des tarifs doit traduire l'évolution du coût d'approvisionnement de l'énergie, cela et seulement cela. Pour cela, il faut mais il suffit de se reporter aux cotations pratiqués sur les marchés financiers énergétiques européens.

Updated: Sept. 11, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 7, 2012)

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About electric Regulation, Senegal remained halfway. Indeed, it has instituted a regulator, the "Commission de Régulation du Secteur de l'Electricité - CRSE)" (Senegale Regulatory Commission of Electricity Sector), but it built the sector around a public operator, SENEGEL with which the State has concluded a concession contract . This operator has the legal monopoly on the transport and distribution. As for production, it has the right to purchase electricity produced by independent producers, as it can sell them electricity if necessary. The prices are regulated by the regulator, through a cap. On 4 August 2012, the regulator has reported a plan of action. This is to make more transparent the relationship between the public operator and independent producers, the information being given to consumers. This is for encouraging them to act and obtain prices more favorable. This incentive is an alternative to net more liberalization of the sector.

Updated: Sept. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 6, 2012)

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In the United States, in its political program, the Republican Party has indicated that it considered inadequate the decision of the Department of Justice adopted in December 2011, according to that the prohibition of poker does not apply when this game was played on line. Indeed, the Republican Party said that this game can be pathological, because it can destroy the players and their families. As such, the distorted interpretation that the previous administration that made of the Wire Act should be canceled for that to be restored, according to it, the outright prohibition of online poker. This program must be compared, in contrast with the court decision, which comes instead to ask that poker can be freely organized, because it is not even a gambling game.

Updated: Sept. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 5, 2012)

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It quarrels on the best model of banking regulation, but the key is to determine the criteria against which we fight. However, two representatives of the Bank of England, during the global meeting of central bankers in Jackson Hole in the US, have appointed what they believe to be the relevant criterion: simplicity. In a short intervention, they stressed that the North American banking regulation would make about 30,000 pages and 60,000 pages for the European Union. Entitling their speech "Dog and Frisbee", they said that it is equivalent to require that a dog learns Newton's laws before catching the Frisbee. Under these conditions, many would would like to return to Glass-Steagall Act, the mere fact that this law was simple.

Updated: Sept. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 4, 2012)

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The "Confédération Suisse" (Swiss Confederation) has decided to establish a new regulatory system to make more effective liberalization of the postal sector, playing both on competition, the strengthening of the powers of the regulator and the privatization of the incumbent operator. The system entering in place on the 1st of October 2012, the "Conseil Fédéral" (SwissFederal Council) appointed the new board members of the "Poste Suisse (Swiss Post)" as well as those who will lead the new regulator: the Commission de la Poste - PostCom". We observe that these are the former managers of the "Post Suisse".

Updated: Sept. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 3, 2012)

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Before the rules called Basel III shall apply in Switzerland in 2015, the "Département Fédéral de Finance" (Swiss Federal Department of Finance) of the "Conseil Fédéral Suisse" (Swiss Federal Council) has developed a draft of an ordinance that was subject to public consultation on August 28, 2012. Another text will present later rules about systemic banks. The order will be applicable on the 1st January 2013. But banks, like any anticipator market agent, have not already internalized the rules of Basel III ? In addition, it seems that the criterion of systemic continues to be the size of the agent, but it is not so evident.

Updated: Sept. 10, 2012 (Initial publication: Sept. 2, 2012)

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The Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) is a British Bank controlled to 80% by the State. It is said involved in the case of the Libor. On August 24, 2012, Reuters news agency reported links between the Royal Bank of Scotland (RBS) and the British and North American regulators to stop the intended prosecution through a settlement. The interest is not in the subject of the announcement, but in the formulation. Indeed, the Bank denies the existence of this mutual understanding. Less than a month ago, it claimed that it would face prosecution and a few weeks ago, it claimed that it could be actions of traders and not its own, taken as operators. Today, these are lawyers who reveal the strategy of negotiations with the regulator. Thus, what made the right hand of the Bank, the left hand of the Bank ignores it and can do something else; the essential was to reassure the market.